Retailers are responding to consumer demand for mobile-integrated loyalty cards, according to a new study from data analyst Juniper Research.

The study found that more than three billion retailer loyalty cards will operate in the form of mobile apps by 2020, up from 1.4 billion from last year, while improved targeting and personalisation made possible by digital coupons was attributed to greater activity rates.

There were wide variations amongst retailers and other reward card providers with 40% of Nectar Card holders acquiring the loyalty app by late-2015, but less than 4% of Tesco Clubcard holders. Retailers who did not offer mobile integration were likely to have far lower levels of visibility on consumer activity.

Research author Dr Windsor Holden, said: “These disparities are likely to result from a number of factors. While in part they may reflect the level of satisfaction with the app and, or the features it offers, they may also be attributable to a greater degree, or greater success, of retailer marketing of their digital loyalty options.”